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4 Main Areas of SEND

Communication & Interaction

This category includes speech, language and communication needs (SLCN), eg, difficulty in using language and/or understanding language. It also includes conditions where there are challenges with understanding social rules of communication, eg, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD).

Cognition & Learning

This category covers a wide range of needs where pupils learn at a slower pace than others their age. Pupils may have difficulty in understanding parts of the curriculum or have difficulties with organisation and memory skills. It includes moderate learning difficulties (MLD), severe learning difficulties (SLD) and profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD). It also includes specific learning difficulties (SpLD) such as dyslexia, dyspraxia and dyscalculia.

 Social, Emotional & Mental Health Difficulties

This category includes difficulties that can manifest as withdrawn, isolated, challenging or disturbing behaviour, or difficulties that mean pupils face challenges in managing their relationships with others. Examples include mental health difficulties such as anxiety or depression, self-harming, substance misuse and eating disorders. Social, emotional and mental health (SEMH) difficulties also include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attachment disorder (AD).

 Sensory and/or Physical Needs

This category includes visual impairment (VI), hearing impairment (HI) and multi-sensory impairment (MSI). It also includes physical disabilities (PD) that require additional ongoing support and/or specialist equipment.